Jumat, 24 Juni 2011

QI 3 - 气 - 氣

QI 3 - 气 - 氣

Definition of Qi

What is Qi? Qi means breathe or air in Chinese. This is the easy part.

The word ‘qi’ in a key concept in many Chinese metaphysics disciplines including Feng Shui. The word ‘qi’ can have different meaning depending on where it is applied and trying to come out with a single definition can be quite a challenge.

Qi is often defined as a form of energy. For the uninitiated it is difficult to relate qi to energy and therefore instead of trying to come out with a definition of qi, I will attempt to explain the meaning of qi by relating to it in the practice of Feng Shui.

There are two type of qi namely Sheng Qi (Living Qi) and Sha Qi (Killing Qi). In Feng Shui we want to live in a place with plenty of Sheng Qi and to avoid places or offending structures that generate Sha Qi.

What is Qi?

meaning of qi

Since we cannot see qi, the next best thing is to look for indicators of qi. A place with thriving fauna and flora has plenty of Sheng Qi. On the other hand a place that is dry and rocky or sandy without much fauna and flora is said to be lacking in qi. This is a first clue to the meaning of qi. It is something that is supports life!

In an ancient Feng Shui text, we learn that “qi is carried by the wind and accumulates near water”. From this statement we know that this life giving Sheng Qi exists in the atmosphere, can be blown away and gathers where there is water. This is another clue to the meaning of qi. It is some sort of life giving ‘energy’ that can be found in the air!

We also know that the mountain ranges with lush green vegetation are a rich source and carrier of qi. In Feng Shui, mountains are known as Dragon and hence qi is also known as the dragons breathe. This is yet another clue to the meaning of qi.

Certain structures like high tension pylon lines generate Sha or Killing Qi and it can be detrimental to health if we live near to one for a long time. Is this another manifestation of qi? This time is it some sort of strong electromagnetic force!

meaning of qi

In the study of Feng Shui there is Xing Fa (shape techniques) and Li Fa (calculation of qi). Xing Fa is about the surrounding forms and how they affect us. Li Fa on the other is about qi that we cannot see. It is about the effect of planetary movements on us. This is a qi that we cannot see but we know where they are at different time by applying the formulas left to us by our forefathers.

So far I have not attempted to give a definition of qi. Instead I have tried to reveal the meaning of qi through examples and practices in Feng Shui. I hope you now have at better understanding of qi (at least from a Feng Shui perspective) and understand why it is so difficult to come out with a definition of qi.

The Meaning of Qi

Richard C Chen
Phone: (312) 328-9906

China has more than 2000 years history, the study of the Traditional Chinese Medical has experienced thousands years of practice. With the application of natural sources of energy, people get the benefits from the nature for health and the happiness of life. Today, lots of western people like to study this subject. It is a very good activity toward the cultural exchange, and the peace of the world. 

In study the Traditional Chinese Medical, the most confusing term that puzzles western people, is the meaning of Qi. Simply, Qi is energy. Broadly, to understand the activities of Qi, we must understand the Chinese Taoism explanation of Tao ( Dao) and Te (De). Tao (Dao) is Qi, Tao is the smallest and original particle of the universe with special capacity and movement regulation. It exists in everywhere and forms everything; it passes through the time – past, current, and future – there is no space and time barrier of Tao; it is also the inner force which maintains the balance and functioning of everything. Te (De) is moral virtue. Moral virtue is the application of Tao, the expressing process of the character of Tao, and the regulation of matters in motion. All the things in the universe have in their orbit regulation in movement, and everything has a basic norm, this is virtue. According to the School of Soaring Crane Qigong, through modern lab, the energy of Qi has been shown to be formed with infrared electromagnetism waves, the magnetic field, static, energetic particles, and other messages. It is a high energy material.

It is hard to understand the Taoism idea of Qi, and the modern science is not advance enough to prove “the smallest and original particle of the universe”. However, Taoism is native Chinese culture, it exists for more than 2000 years already, we cannot disregard this idea. Many of the modern Chinese scholars cannot get this meaning too. They tried many ways to understand it, and different people get the different meanings. The way to understand it is through comprehension (Chinese people call it awareness or sudden awakening).

Because everything has special capacity and movement regulation, their inner force of energy movement is Qi, it is a kind of inner energy flow.Like the western medical terminology, a word was formed with prefix, root, and suffix. Qi is suffix. The energy flow of activity:

Related to the heart, is called “XinQi”, Xin means heart;
Related to the stomach, is called “WuiQi”, Wui means stomach;
Related to the Kidney, is called “ShanQi”, Shan means Kidney,
Related to the Liver, is called “GanQi”, Gan means Liver,
Related to the Lounge, is called “HuiQi”, Hui means Lounge,
Related to blood, is called “XieQi”, Xie means blood.
The energy flow of activity,
Related to air, is called “KongQi”, Kong means sky, the air stays in the sky; the inner force of air movement is Qi;
Related to gas, is called MeiQi, Mei means coal;
Related to water, is called “ShuiQi”, Shui means water;
Related to earth, is called “TuQi”, Tu means earth;
Related to the Earth, is called “DiQi”, Di means the Earth.
The energy flow of activity,
Related to people’s fortune, is called “YinQi”, Yin means activities;
Related to FengSui, is called “LingQi”, Ling means deity.
Related to the motivation of army, is called “SiQi”, Si means soldier;
Related to the disease, is called “BingQi”, Bing means disease.
Related to Yang character, is called YangQi;
Related to Yin Character, is called YinQi.

From the above example, we can have a general concept about the meaning of Qi now. However, that is not enough. Qi includes both of the material base and the movement activity characters. This two kind of character is inseparable. Different kind of herb has different material base, and different functional activities. Thus Qi is very diversified. The material base of Qi is energy, and all of the material has energy, thus it is not hard for people to have a general concept of Qi. However, it is bard for people to understand the functional activity characters of Qi.

The material base of Qi is energy. According to physics, energy can neither be created, nor be destroyed, it always transfers from a material to another material, or transforms from a form to another form, and the general amount of energy cannot be changed. For example, the energy of fire is transferred to water, while the water is boiling; and the chemical energy is transformed into mechanical energy, while the gas is burning inside the engine of a car. Understand this idea, we can easily understand that the activities of Qi are diversified. 

Technique and herb method are not important, the skillful doctor is the one who can freely apply the energy. It is difficult for western people to understand and memorize the Traditional Chinese Medical. This is reality. However, it is not the fault of western people, because the culture and natural sources of the eastern and western world are different. You can be a skillful doctor while you can understand the functional character of Qi. Thus you can freely apply the natural energy for medical use.

There are many ideas explain the functional characters of Qi. As mankind is going to enter the 21st century, I think that it is a good sense to start this new subject for the understanding of the activities of Qi now.

In 1979, the sun had its third tremendous eruption that stimulated strong waves, emitted high energetic material, and replaced the energy field of the universe. During this year, some resourceful people thought that modern science and human beings would have a big evolution. They theorize that 1970s atomic scientific period and it was now coming to an end; beginning with the 1980s, modern science would be characterized by a “human biological  science” period. Many scientists have now switched their focus of study to this subject.  Notably, the famous rocket scientist, General QUAN Xueshen, believes that human body is a complex biological microcosm, it opens itself to nature; the natural universe is a macrocosm which controls our small universal system; human beings with special methods can make their small universal systems link together with the huge natural universal system thereby easily applying the information and energy in the universe to develop modern science and human beings in many ways.

Oneness -- If contends that nature includes mankind and there force, that human beings and the natural world are all integrated into a single unit of existence. Everything is one entire entity. Although our visible body can be separated from nature, human beings are biologically dependent upon the principle of the natural world and are linked together within a universal field of interdependent existence. If we forget our flesh, as a source of personal existence, our energy can be released and joined into the universal field of what Western philosophers have called "being." According to traditional Chinese culture, that the universe and human beings are unified to be one entire entity which is called “TIAN REN HE YI”. TIAN means the universe, REN means mankind, HE means unify, and YI means one. With this idea, human being and the universe are one entire entity; while they maintain balance, the world is peace and the human body is healthy. While you can perfectly adjust yourself to balance with the universal regulations, you are free from the misfortunes of life. This is a state of existence.

Twoness, Taiji --- the idea of Yin & Yang. Yin & Yang, is the representing of the two opposites characters of the natural relative things and phenomena. It is not only represents the opposites characters of two things, but also represents the opposites characters related into a thing. Yin&Yang method believes that all of the things in the natural world exist in the Yin&Yang, the development of everything in the world is the result which the Yin&Yang acted. Yin & Yang is the regulation of the natural world, the guiding principal of everything, the basis of the development, and the original force of the producing and eliminating. They are related to each other; positive and negative, male and female, clearly and chaotic, health and sick, good and bad, uplift and sad, order and disorder, success and fail, increase and decrease, light and dark, black and white, left and right, front and back, etc. Creature has Yin & Yang characters, while the zygote of a creature begins its first cleavage, two cells are formed, there are Yin and Yan characters exist in this two cells; and more and more Yin & Yang characters will be created through the development of the embryonic.

The traditional Chinese Medical is based on the virtue of Yin and Yang -- the positive and negative materials; and applying the counterbalance character to convert all evil materials. Yin & Yang can be categorized into four ideas: mutually inclusive, mutually exclusive, mutually revolve, and mutually balance.

  • Mutually inclusive: The existence of Yin & Yang relate to each other. That is to say, although they are different kinds of characters, they link with each other; the existence of Yang is based on the existence of Yin, and the existence of Yin is based on the existence of Yang; If there is no Yang, there is no Yin; If there is no Yin, there is no Yang.

  • Mutually exclusive: The state of the Yin & Yang is not at peace, Yin and Yang always eliminate each other to become imbalance which keep the development of life force. 

  • Mutual balance: Although Yin and Yang react to each other they should maintain the balance that is the condition of health and peace. While the balance condition breaks, either Yang over Yin, or Yin over Yang, people will have disease.

  • Mutually revolve: The state of Yin and Yang can base on special condition for a mutually revolving. That’s to say, Yin can turn to Yang, and Yang can turn to Yin. Things will develop in the opposite direction when they reach the limit. Regardless of what kind of character, while an unusual character develops exceedingly, it will automatically revolve to its opposite side in the end.
Threeness --- the relationship between the Universe, human beings, and the Earth. The human body, especially the brain is treated as a small universal system. Human body is a complex biological microcosm, it opens itself to nature; the natural universe is a macrocosm which controls our small universal system; human beings with special methods can make their small universal systems link together with the huge natural universal system thereby easily applying the information and energy in the universe to develop modern science and human beings in many ways. According to Albert Einstein’s Relative Theory: E=MC2. E is energy, M is mass which relates to matter and space, and C is the velocity of light that relates to speed and time. From this relationship between the energy, space, and time we can logically understand the relationship between the human being and the universe. The visible separation of people and nature is an illusion that can be overcome through Qi (energy). According to Soaring Crane Qigong, there are three main energy storage areas in our body which are called "Dantian": Lower Dantian is in the center of the pelvic cavity which connects to the earth, Middle Dantian is in the center of the abdominal cavity which connects to human beings, and Upper Dantian is in the center of forebrain which connects to the universe. In addition there is a central channel which is called "Zhongmei" in people's central body which joins these three Dantian together with inner energy circulation channels (meridians) and pressure points to form our small universal system. Nature includes the space and the earth, the balance relationship between the universe, human, and the earth, is the way of life. This is a functional character of Qi.

Fiveness --- Wuxing --- the energy source of Five Elements: Metal, Water, Wood, Fire, and Earth. Based on the Oriental culture, the natural world and creatures are formed with five sources of energy materials. These five elements have supporting and restrain characters. We can apply their supporting and restrain character in a healing.                                            
  • Supporting character: Water ==> Wood ==> Fire ==> Earth ==> Metal ==>Water                                
  • Restrain character:  Metal ==> Wood ==> Earth ==> Water ==> Fire ==> Metal     

In conclusion, Qi is an energy form. To better understand what is Qi? People must understand its material base, and its functional characters.  It is the smallest and original particle of the universe with special capacity and movement regulation. It exists in everywhere and forms everything; it passes through the time – past, current, and future – there is no space and time barrier of Qi; it is also the inner force which maintains the balance and functioning of everything.

Kamis, 23 Juni 2011

PRANAJIWA - Euchresta horsfieldii - 台灣山豆根

PRANAJIWA - Euchresta horsfieldii - 台灣山豆根

Prana Jiwa (台灣山豆根)

學名:Euchresta horsfieldii (Leschen.) Benn.
俗名:臺灣山豆根,七葉蓮,Horsfied Euchresta



Biji Euchresta horsfieldii berkhasiat sebagai obat batuk darah, untuk penguat syahwat dan pelancar air seni.

Tanaman obat berpenampilan serba langsing ini dinamakan pranajiwa. Hingga kini, tak ada catatan sejarah yang bisa menjelaskan asal mula nama itu. Yang pasti, khasiat dan "kesaktian" tumbuhan obat multiguna ini sangat populer di kalangan peracik obat-obatan yaitu sebagai pemacu gairah sexual laki-laki.
Pranajiwa --dalam bahasa Latinnya Euchresta horsfieldii-- adalah tumbuhan perdu tegak dengan tinggi 0,5 m-1,5 m. Sekilas, bentuk daun anggita keluarga Leguminosae ini mirip daun melinjo. Pranajiwa terdapat di Pegunungan Himalaya, Filipina, dan Indonesia. Biasanya, tanaman padat manfaat ini bisa kita jumpai di daerah pegunungan dengan ketinggian 1.000 m - 2.000 m dpl.
Susunan daun pranajiwa berselang-seling dengan tangkai yang panjang. Setiap tangkai terdiri dari 3-5 anak daun berwarna hijau mengkilat. Panjang daunnya sekira 10 - 15 cm dengan pangkal membulat dan ujung lancip. Sedangkan tangkai bunganya, bersembulan dari ketiak-ketiak daun, tersusun bertandan dalam jumlah banyak. Ukuran bunga-bunga putih ini cukup mungil, sekira 1,25 cm.
Buah pranajiwa yang mirip polong ini, berbentuk lonjong dengan panjang 1-2 cm. Pada waktu muda, polong berwarna cokelat dan berubah hitam keunguan setelah matang. Umumnya, dalam satu polong, terdapat satu biji yang besar. Rasanya? Sangat pahit!


拼音:Shān Dòu Gēn
英文:Vietnamese Sophora Root
豆根(Vietnamese Sophora Root)爲雙子葉植物綱豆科植物越南槐的幹燥根及根莖。植物形態爲灌木,高1~2m。生於石灰岩山地或岩石縫中。主產廣西秋季采制挖根,除去地上莖葉,曬幹。根莖呈不規則結節狀,頂端殘留莖基或莖痕,下面着生根數條。根長圓柱形,略彎曲,長10~35cm,直徑 0.3~1.5cm;表面棕色至棕黑色,有縱皺紋及横長皮孔。質堅硬,斷面皮部淡棕色,木部黄白色。微有豆腥氣,味極苦。功能主治:清火解毒,消腫止痛。用於咽喉牙齦腫痛、肺熱咳嗽煩渴、黄疸、熱結便祕。


域:真核域 Eukarya
界:植物界 Plantae
門:被子植物門 Magnoliophyta
綱:雙子葉植物綱 Magnoliopsida
目:豆目 Fabales
科:豆科 Fabaceae
屬:山豆根屬 Euchresta






拼音名: Shān Dòu Gēn





灌木,直立或近平臥,高1~2米。根通常2~5條,圓柱形,黄褐色。莖圓柱形,表面具溝槽,密被短柔毛,莖上部常作"之"字形彎曲。單數羽狀複葉,互生,小葉片11~17,長(團狀卵形或卵形,長1~2.5釐米,寬 0.5~1.5釐米,頂端1小葉較大,多爲橢圓形,全緣,上面深綠色,被短毛,下面灰棕色,密被灰棕色短柔毛;小葉柄短,密被短柔毛。總狀花序頂生;長 12~15釐米,密被短毛;花萼闊鍾狀,外被稀毛,頂端有5個三角狀的短齒;蝶形花冠黄白色;雄蕊10,花藥背着,花絲細長;雌蕊1,子房上位,圓柱形,花柱彎曲,柱頭圓形,簇生長柔毛。莢果紫黑色,串珠狀。花期4~5月。































根含總生物鹼約0.93%,其中苦參鹼(matrine)0.52%,氧化苦參鹼(oxyma-trine)0.35%, 以及微量的臭豆鹼(anagyrine)和甲基金雀花鹼(methylcytisne);並含槐果鹼 (sophocarpine)。黄酮類化合物有紫檀素(pterocarpin)和l-三葉豆高麗槐甙(l-trifolirhizin,l- maackioin-β-D-glucoside),後者經酶水解得l-高麗槐素(l-maackiain),均爲紫檀素類化合物,有抗癌作用,其作用甙比甙元強,右鏇體比左鏇體強。另含山豆根素(sophoranone)、山豆根查耳酮(sophoradin)、山豆根色烯素
(sophoranochromene)、山豆根色烯查耳酮(sophoradochromene)、山豆根色烯素 (sophoranochromene)、山豆根色烯查耳酮(sophoradochromene)、山豆根色滿素(2-[{3′- hydroxy-2′,2′-dimethyl-8′-(3-methy-2-butenyl)}chroman-6′-yl]-7-hydroxy-8-(3- methyl-2-butenyl)chroman-4-one)、山豆根苯並二氫呋喃素(2-[{2′-(l-hydroxy-l- methylethyl)-7′-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-2′,3′-dihydrobenzofuran}-5′-yl]-7- hydroxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)chroman-4-one)、大豆素(daiazein)、山豆根苯並吡喃素(2-[(7′-hydroxy-2′-dimethyl-2H-benzopyran)-6′-yl]-7-hydroxy-8-(3-methyl-2- butenyl)chroman-4-one)、4′,7-二羥基-6,8-雙(3-甲基-2-丁烯)二氫黄酮(4′,7- trihydroxy-6,8-bis-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)flavanone)、2′,4′,7-三羥基-6,8-雙(3- 甲基-2-丁烯)二氫黄酮(2′,4′,7-trihydroxy-6,8-bis-(3-methyl-2- butenyl)flavanone)、山豆根新色烯查耳酮(6-[3-(2′,4′- dihydroxyphenyl)acryloyl]-7-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)2H- benzopyrane)、山豆根新色烯素(2-(2′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-8,8-dimethyl-10-(3- methyl-2-butenyl)-8H-pyreano[2,3-d]chroman-4-one)及柒料木素;其所含酚性物質,水解得咖啡酸和長鏈醇(CnH2n+1OH,n=20,21,23,24,25,26)其中以C26爲主,占72.4%;此外,尚含羽扇豆醇、β-穀甾醇、維生素C和維生素 B1。有報道,中性多糖由D-半乳糖和D-葡萄糖組成,其分子比爲1:1。






















從廣豆根中離析得出生物鹼類: 苦參鹼(Matrine)、氧花苦參鹼(Oxymatrine)、臭豆鹼(Anagyrine)、甲基金雀花鹼(Methylcytisine)、槐果鹼(Sophocarpine);黄酮類: 槐定(Sophora- din)、槐酮(Sophoranone)、槐多色烯
(Sophorado- chromene)、槐諾色烯(Sophoranochromene);l-朝鮮槐英(l-Maackiain)、染料木素(Genistein)、紫檀素(Pterocarpine)、紅車軸草根甙(Trifolirhizin)以及β-穀甾醇(β-Sitosterol)、羽扇豆醇(Lupeol)、一群咖啡酸的高級烷酯醇等. 越南槐中含苦參鹼、氧化苦參鹼、金雀花鹼(Cytisine)、氧化槐果鹼(Oxysophocarpine )、槐安(Sophovamine)及槐醇(Sophovauol)等.

蝙蝠葛中含生物鹼: 蝙蝠葛醇靈(Daurino- line)、阿克吐明(Acutumine)、阿克吐米定(Acutu- midine)、阿克吐明寧(Acutuminine)、華月鹼(Sinomenine)、二華月鹼(Disinomenine)、千金藤靈(Stepharine)、蝙蝠葛柯靈(Dauricoline)、車里葉靈(Chelilanthifoline)、千金藤醇里定(Stepholi- dine).



1. 抗病原微生物作用 

實驗表明: 山豆根對金黄色葡萄球菌、絮狀表皮癣菌和白色念珠菌有抑制作用, 對結核杆菌有高效抗菌作用.苦參鹼溶液對乙型鏈球菌、痢疾杆菌(F2)、變形菌、大腸杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌及綠膿杆菌均有較強的抑制作用.氧化苦參鹼對痢疾杆菌、大腸杆菌、乙型鏈球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌有抑制作用.

2. 抗腫瘤作用 

山豆根對惡性腫瘤有顯著效果.副作用小, 安全, 且不使白細胞減少, 試驗動物一般狀態良好.山豆根提取物、苦參鹼、氧化苦參鹼對移植S180的小鼠有延緩死亡的效果, 對接種實體瘤或腹水瘤的大鼠亦能延緩死亡.對白血病的血細胞增長有抑制作用.灌服廣豆根浸劑60g/kg/d, 共16~21天, 對於接種的子宮頸癌(U14)有明顯的抑制作用.對肉瘤180的抑制率也達到25%以上.從廣豆根中分離出來的苦參鹼, 對小鼠艾氏腹水癌無論試管試驗或整體動物試驗都有效, 氧化苦參鹼則無效;但二者對小鼠S180都有效.山豆根中所含的紫檀素類(Pterocarpoid)、槐樹素(Sophoiaponicin)對 S180也有抑制作用, 一般右鏇異構體比左鏇者活性強, 甙的活性比甙元強.山豆根(未鑒定品種)對急性淋巴細胞型白血病和急性粒細胞型白血病患者白細胞的脱氫酶均有抑制作用, 對前者的呼吸有輕度抑制作用.

3. 對中樞神經系統的作用

山豆根中所含生物鹼對中樞神經系統有明顯的抑制作用.苦參鹼、氧化苦參鹼、槐果鹼等均有鎮、鎮痛及降低體溫的作用.研究表明: 氧化苦參鹼、槐果鹼能減少小鼠自發活動, 協同閾下劑量戊巴比妥鈉、水合氯醛或氯丙嗪的中樞抑制作用, 拮抗苯丙胺或咖啡因所引起的中樞興奮, 但不能對抗戊四氮性驚厥, 對士的寧所致驚厥則有易化作用, 增加士的寧性驚厥死亡數.苦參鹼、氧化苦參鹼、槐果鹼對醋酸所致小鼠扭體次數有明顯抑制作用, 能延長燙尾法小鼠的痛反應時間.苦參鹼口服能降低小鼠體溫, 在應激情況下尤爲顯著.氧化苦參鹼、槐果鹼對正常大鼠體溫亦有降低作用, 時間可持續5小時.氧化苦參鹼10mg/kg可使四聯菌苗引起的家兔發熱明顯下降.

4. 對呼吸系統的作用

山豆根中所含生物鹼有興奮呼吸作用.臭豆鹼、金雀花鹼能反射性興奮呼吸, 其作用類似煙鹼.實驗表明: 金雀花鹼0.02mg/kg或1.5mg/kg給麻醉貓股靜脈注射, 有強烈的呼吸興奮作用, 同時心跳加快、血壓急劇上升, 其後隨呼吸興奮作用的消失而很快恢複正常.0.06mg/kg劑量的金雀花鹼, 對呼吸的興奮作用較5倍劑量(0.3mg/kg)的山梗菜鹼還強.苦參鹼、氧化苦參鹼、槐果鹼等有顯著平喘作用.氧化苦參鹼的平喘作用強度與氨茶鹼相似, 但作用持續時間較長.槐果鹼的平喘作用較苦參鹼和氧化苦參鹼爲強.有報道指出, 苦參鹼對離體豚鼠或大鼠氣管在無鈣或有鈣營養液中有輕度的抑制或興奮作用, 但對組胺、乙醯膽鹼、氯化鋇等引起的氣管興奮有顯著的拮抗作用, 無鈣條件下拮抗作用更強.氧化苦參鹼給豚鼠灌胃, 對組胺哮喘有明顯的平喘作用;給家兔肌肉注射, 對被動及主動皮膚過敏反應有顯著抑制作用, 並顯著抑制兔血清IgE抗體的形成, 表明抗變態反應可能與其平喘有一定關係.槐果鹼有明顯的鎮咳平喘作用, 其對支氣管平滑肌的解痙作用可能是中樞性的, 主要是通過興奮中樞β-腎上腺素能受體、激活腺苷酸環化酶, 使腦中cAMP升高而達到平喘效果.

5. 對心血管系統的作用

廣豆根總鹼靜脈注射, 對由烏頭鹼、洋地黄毒甙、氯仿-腎上腺素、氯化鉀等所誘發的動物心律失常有明顯的對抗作用, 能有效地逆轉由異位心律或傳導障礙所引起的多種類型的心律失常, 由此推測其可能是一種“廣譜型”抗心律失常的藥物, 廣豆根抗心律失常的有效成分可能是金雀化鹼與苦參鹼及其衍生物.有報道認爲, 苦參鹼的抗心律失常作用可能與其對心髒的直接作用有關, 它可抑制烏頭鹼誘發大鼠的左房的自律性, 延長烏頭鹼誘發自動節律的潛伏期, 減慢其初始頻率, 可能能直接抑制心肌細胞膜Na+的内流, 而未見鈣拮抗作用.研究還表明: 苦參鹼抗心律失常作用亦與其負性頻率有關, 且具有正性肌力作用.氧化苦參鹼對家兔心房和豚鼠乳頭肌有正性肌力作用, 並能縮短功能不應期, 減少右心房的自動節律, 降低氯化鈣所致正性頻率.實驗表明: 氧化苦參鹼不論預防用藥或是治療用藥, 均能縮短腎上腺素所致的心律失常, 應用劑量範圍内作用比利多卡因強.

山豆根總鹼有直接擴冠作用, 能顯著增加離體豚鼠心髒的冠脈流量, 其作用強度與心肌收縮力無關.有報道指出, 山豆根總鹼有降壓作用, 該作用與其擴血管作用有關.氧化苦參鹼及槐果鹼給麻醉犬靜脈注射, 有快速降壓效果, 其降壓作用與神經節阻斷有關.金雀花鹼給麻醉犬靜脈注射, 則有快速升壓作用, 其作用與興奮神經節有關.

苦參鹼灌服能顯著降低實驗性高脂血症大鼠的三醯甘油含量, 減輕肝的脂肪性變及升高高密度脂蛋白, 並能顯著改善血液流變性, 降低血液黏度, 加快紅細胞電泳時間.

6. 對消化系統的作用

實驗表明: 山豆根能抑制胃液分泌, 對小鼠應激性潰瘍和大鼠幽門結紮性潰瘍、醋酸性潰瘍等均有抑制作用, 並能促進潰瘍的修複.苦參鹼亦有類似作用.柔枝槐素有強的抗胃潰瘍及抑制胃液分泌作用, 柔枝槐酮作用次之.

氧化苦參鹼對四氯化碳引起的家兔和小鼠急性肝損傷、D-氨基半乳糖引起的小鼠肝損傷均有保護作用, 可使SGPT降低、肝細胞壞死減輕.

研究表明: 山豆根所含的多種生物鹼有明顯的解痙作用.

7. 對免疫功能的作用

實驗證明: 山豆根對網狀内皮系統有興奮作用, 能使吞噬細胞增多.氧化苦參鹼對天花粉所致大鼠被動皮膚過敏以及皮内注射天花粉引起的大鼠主動皮膚過敏均有明顯抑制作用, 其作用機制是抑制了血清抗體的效價升高;尚能抑制家兔血清IgE抗體生成, 提示其有顯著抗Ⅰ型變態反應作用.氧化苦參鹼對幼鼠淋巴組織、胸腺、脾髒無萎縮作用, 提示其在抑制腫瘤時無免疫抑制作用.氧化苦參鹼皮下注射較高劑量時可抑制小鼠腹腔巨噬細胞的吞噬能力, 但腹腔注射時卻未見有此作用.有報道指出, 氧化苦參鹼對小鼠T、B淋巴細胞及細胞因子因劑量不同而呈雙向作用, 1mg/ml的高濃度時對其有抑制作用, 而在10-5mg/ml時則對其有增強作用.氧化苦參鹼還能顯著降低馬血清攻擊致敏小鼠的過敏性休克死亡, 此可能與其能抑制過敏介質釋放有關.

8. 升白細胞作用

苦參鹼、氧化苦參鹼對經X線照射引起的兔白細胞下降有明顯的治療作用.氧化苦參鹼200mg/kg於照射前2天連續肌肉注射, 能明顯防止60Co照射引起的家兔白細胞降低;對照射引起的小鼠白細胞下降亦有明顯治療效果.氧化苦參鹼對正常家兔外周血白細胞也有升高作用.


苦參鹼、氧化苦參鹼、槐果鹼均有顯著的抗炎作用.苦參鹼對醋酸所致的小鼠腹腔毛細血管通透性增高、巴豆油所致之小鼠耳廓腫脹、蛋清或鹿角菜膠引起的大鼠足腫脹及棉球肉芽腫均有明顯抑制作用.氧化苦參鹼肌肉注射與氫化考的松相似, 能明顯對抗巴豆油、角叉菜膠(大鼠)和醋酸(小鼠)誘發的滲出性炎症, 對大鼠由棉球誘發的慢性炎症無效, 而氫化考的松有效.提示其抗炎機制與垂體-腎上腺皮質系統無關, 管内實驗證明是直接抑制炎症反應.

10. 其他作用

苦參鹼有利尿作用, 可增加尿中氯化鈉的排泄量.

臭豆鹼對神經節沖動傳導有輕度抑制作用, 還具箭毒樣作用.

染料木素有降血脂作用, 其降低血清中甘油三酯的作用較降膽固醇作用爲強.還具有雌激素作用, 能使小鼠子宮重量增加.

從蝙蝠葛根莖中提得的總鹼制成季胺塊(即甲基山豆根總鹼)具有肌肉松弛作用, 但其有明顯降低血壓的缺點.






山豆根爲治咽要藥, 多用於治療咽喉腫痛、病毒性肝炎以及某些腫瘤等疾病,臨床應用較爲廣泛.山豆根性味苦寒,有清熱解毒、利咽消腫之功效, 但同時伴有嚴重的毒副作用。常用劑量爲3~9g.現代藥理研究表明山豆根主要含生物鹼及黄酮化合物,生物鹼有槐果鹼、苦參鹼、氧化苦參鹼等多種生物鹼,黄酮類包括柔枝槐酮、柔枝懷素等.近年來山豆根中毒患者較多見,尤其是超量服用者.

山豆根中毒發生率極高,飲用自配的含山豆根方劑以預防感冒容易引發中毒,甚至死亡。中毒量與個體之間的差異較大,一般在10g以上便容易引起中毒,少數病人服用6g亦可出現毒性反應。中毒反應多在服藥後5 分鍾至半小時内出現,亦有幾小時後出現者。另外,煎煮時間延長,則毒性顯著增加,可能與所含神經毒成分有關。









大鼠經靜脈恒速滴人山豆根總鹼(16mg/100g體重)後,多於30~35分鍾内呼吸先停止,繼而5~10分鍾後心搏停止,心室電位消失死亡。廣豆根的中毒成分可能是苦參鹼和氧化苦參鹼,槐果鹼亦不能除外。苦參鹼的LD50:腹腔注射小鼠爲150mg/kg,家兔爲125mg/kg。氧化苦參鹼 LD50:小鼠靜脈内給藥爲150mg/kg,腹腔内注射爲750mg/kg,肌内注射爲256.74±573.6mg/kg,槐果鹼的LD50:小鼠灌胃爲241.5mg /kg,肌内注射爲92.41mg/kg,腹腔注射爲78±16mg/kg,大鼠皮下注射爲185mg/kg,口服爲198mg/kg,肌内注射爲 130mg/kg,腹腔注射爲120mg/kg,本品氫溴酸鹽小鼠灌胃爲297.5mg/kg,肌内注射爲101.4mg/kg,靜脈注射爲 73.64mg/kg。槐果素小鼠腹腔注射的LD50爲200~250mg/kg,大鼠腹腔注射爲300mg/kg。














(1)對輕、中度中毒者肌内注射山莨菪鹼,用5~10mg,靜脈推注50%葡萄糖60ml加維生素B6 100mg和維生素C200mg。











QI 2 - 气 - 氣

QI 2 - 气 - 氣

Qi definition

Qi definition

What is the qi definition or definition of qi?

The definition of qi can be explained like this. Qi exists in everything that is vegetable, animal, mineral, earth, water, sky and fire. It is universal. Qi is pronounced chee in Chinese, in Korean it is gi; Japanese ki; and Vietnamese khí.
It plays a very important part in traditional Chinese medicine and martial arts.
Bu tong ze tong, tong ze bu tong, means, free flow: no pain, no free flow: pain.

The definition of qi can be seen in these examples.
Rain falls to the earth then the sun shines. As a result the garden is nourished. We can then eat the produce. The qi is then transferred to us.From the flint the qi energy, is transmitted to the wood making fire. The wood burns, the qi in the fire makes heat to boil up water and cook the food.

  • Heat is named heat Qi or (Re Qi).
  • The weather is named Heaven Qi or (Tian Qi) this is because it shows the energy state of the heavens.
  • Electric power is named electric Qi or (Dian Qi)
  • When someone is honorable and has spiritual power to do good, they have Righteous Qi or Normal Qi (Zheng Qi).
  • If a person is living, their body's energy is known as Human Qi or (Ren Qi). Qi also expresses the energy state of something, especially of living things.
  • If something is living it has Huo Qi or (Vital Qi)
  • when something is dead it has Si Qi ,(Dead Qi) or Ghost Qi , (Gui Qi).
  • The morale or spiritual state of a army is called (Qi Shi) or Energy State.

The concept of life-energy innate in all living thing can be seen in other ancient religions and other metaphysical systems. A list is shown below.

  • Polynesian mythology: mana
  • Egyptian mythology: ka
  • Yoruba mythology: oloddumare
  • Norse mythology: seid
  • Inuit mythology: inua, sila
  • Hebrew mythology: ruah (רוּחַ - ruaħ) (Aramaic ܪܘܼܚܵܐ/רוחא [rūħā, rūħo]) (רוח - rūḥ)
  • Hindu philosophy: prana (प्राण, prāṇa)
  • Druidry: awen
  • Greek mythology: pneuma (πνεῦμα)

  • ᭙ PRANA (Kawi) : nafas, napas, kehidupan; perasaan, pikiran.
  • ᭙ KEPRANAN (Kawi) : terharu
  • ᭙ DIPRANANI (Kawi) : dibuat terharu hatinya
  • ᭙ PRANA ANTAKA (Kawi) : akhir nafas

Rabu, 22 Juni 2011

QI 1 - 气 - 氣

QI 1 - 气 - 氣


Karakter qi dalam kaligrafi penulisan bahasa Korea

Qi (Hanzi: 氣, Kanji: 気) atau lebih sering dieja sebagai chi atau ch'i (dalam Romanisasi gaya Wade-Giles) atau ki (dalam ejaan Romaji bahasa Jepang) adalah sebuah konsep dasar budaya Tionghoa. Qi dipercayai adalah bagian dari semua makhluk hidup sebagai semacam "kekuatan hidup" atau "kekuatan spiritual". Kata ini seringkali diterjemahkan sebagai "aliran energi" atau secara harafiah sebagai "udara" atau "napas".


Dalam aksara Hanzi atau Kanji, qi ditulis sebagai 氣 atau 気. Menurut tradisi, karakter ini ditafsirkan sebagai "asap kukus (气) yang naik dari nasi (米) yang masak."


Qi (Ch'i)
Qi 3 forms.jpg
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Japanese name
Korean name
Thai name
Thai ชี่
Vietnamese name
Quốc ngữ khí

In traditional Chinese culture, qi (also chi or ch'i) is an active principle forming part of any living thing. Qi is frequently translated as "energy flow", and is often compared to Western notions of energeia or élan vital (vitalism), as well as the yogic notion of prana and pranayama. The literal translation of "qi" is air, breath, or gas.



Term and character

The etymological explanation for the form of the qi logogram in the traditional form is “steam () rising from rice () as it cooks”. The earliest way of writing qi consisted of three wavy lines, used to represent one's breath seen on a cold day. A later version, 气, identical to the present-day simplified character, is a stylized version of those same three lines. For some reason, early writers of Chinese found it desirable to substitute for 气 a cognate character that originally meant to feed other people in a social context such as providing food for guests.[citation needed] Appropriately, that character combined the three-line qi character with the character for rice. So 气 plus 米 formed 氣, and that is the traditional character still used today (the oracle bone character, the seal script character and the modern "school standard" or Kǎi shū characters in the box at the right show three stages of the evolution of this character).[1]

Traditional Chinese character qì, also used in Korean hanja. In Japanese kanji, this character was used until 1946, when it was changed to .

In the Japanese language, the Chinese character corresponding to "qi" () is pronounced 'ki'. The Japanese language contains over 11,442 known usages of "ki" as a compound. As a compound, it tends to represent syllables associated with the mind, the heart, feeling, the atmosphere, and flavor.[citation needed]


References to things analogous to the qi taken to be the life-process or flow of energy that sustains living beings are found in many belief systems, especially in Asia. In Chinese legend, it is Huang Di (the Yellow Emperor) who is identified as the one who first collected and formalized much of what subsequently became known as traditional Chinese medicine.
Philosophical conceptions of qi from the earliest records of Chinese philosophy (5th century BC) correspond to Western notions of humours. The earliest description of qi in the current sense of vital energy is due to Mencius (4th century BC).

Within the framework of Chinese thought, no notion may attain such a degree of abstraction from empirical data as to correspond perfectly to one of our modern universal concepts. Nevertheless, the term qi comes as close as possible to constituting a generic designation equivalent to our word "energy". When Chinese thinkers are unwilling or unable to fix the quality of an energetic phenomenon, the character qi (氣) inevitably flows from their brushes.[2]

The ancient Chinese described it as "life-force". They believed qi permeated everything and linked their surroundings together. They likened it to the flow of energy around and through the body, forming a cohesive and functioning unit. By understanding its rhythm and flow they believed they could guide exercises and treatments to provide stability and longevity.
Although the concept of qi has been important within many Chinese philosophies, over the centuries the descriptions of qi have varied and have sometimes been in conflict. Until China came into contact with Western scientific and philosophical ideas, they would not have categorized all things in terms of matter and energy. Qi and li (理, li, pattern) were 'fundamental' categories similar to matter and energy.

Hand written calligraphic Qi.
Fairly early on, some Chinese thinkers began to believe that there were different fractions of qi and that the coarsest and heaviest fractions of qi formed solids, lighter fractions formed liquids, and the most ethereal fractions were the "lifebreath" that animates living beings.[3]
Yuán qì is a notion of innate or pre-natal qi to distinguish it from acquired qi that a person may develop over the course of their lifetime.


Other spellings include simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; Mandarin Pinyin: ; Wade–Giles: ch'i; Jyutping: hei. Qi is pronounced /ˈtʃiː/ in English; [tɕʰî] in Standard Chinese; Korean: gi; Japanese: ki; Vietnamese: khí, pronounced [xǐ]) The approximate English pronunciation of qi, similar to "chee" in cheese, should also be distinguished from the pronunciation of the Greek letter chi, which has a hard c sound, like "c" in car, and a long i, similar to other Greek letters phi, psi, xi.

Early philosophical texts

The earliest texts that speak of qi give some indications of how the concept developed. The philosopher Mo Di used the word qi to refer to noxious vapors that would in due time arise from a corpse were it not buried at a sufficient depth.[4] He reported that early civilized humans learned how to live in houses to protect their qi from the moisture that had troubled them when they lived in caves.[5] He also associated maintaining one's qi with providing oneself adequate nutrition.[6] In regard to another kind of qi, he recorded how some people performed a kind of prognostication by observing the qi (clouds) in the sky.[7]
In the Analects of Confucius, compiled from the notes of his students sometime after his death in 479 B.C., qi could mean breath,[8] and combining it with the Chinese word for blood (making 血氣, xue-qi, blood and breath), the concept could be used to account for motivational characteristics.

The [morally] noble man guards himself against three things. When he is young, his xue-qi has not yet stabilized, so he guards himself against sexual passion. When he reaches his prime, his xue-qi is not easily subdued, so he guards himself against combativeness. When he reaches old age, his xue-qi is already depleted, so he guards himself against acquisitiveness.
—Confucius, Analects, 16:7

Mencius described a kind of qi that might be characterized as an individual's vital energies. This qi was necessary to activity, and it could be controlled by a well-integrated willpower.[9] When properly nurtured, this qi was said to be capable of extending beyond the human body to reach throughout the universe.[9] It could also be augmented by means of careful exercise of one's moral capacities.[9] On the other hand, the qi of an individual could be degraded by averse external forces that succeed in operating on that individual.[10]
Not only human beings and animals were believed to have qi. Zhuangzi indicated that wind is the qi of the Earth.[11] Moreover, cosmic yin and yang "are the greatest of qi."[12] He described qi as "issuing forth" and creating profound effects.[13] He said "Human beings are born [because of] the accumulation of qi. When it accumulates there is life. When it dissipates there is death... There is one qi that connects and pervades everything in the world."[14]
Another passage traces life to intercourse between Heaven and Earth: "The highest Yin is the most restrained. The highest Yang is the most exuberant. The restrained comes forth from Heaven. The exuberant issues forth from Earth. The two intertwine and penetrate forming a harmony, and [as a result] things are born."[15]
"The Guanzi essay 'Neiye' 內業 (Inward training) is the oldest received writing on the subject of the cultivation of vapor [qi] and meditation techniques. The essay was probably composed at the Jixia Academy in Qi in the late fourth century B.C."[16]
Xun Zi, another Confucian scholar of the Jixia Academy, followed in later years. At 9:69/127, Xun Zi says, "Fire and water have qi but do not have life. Grasses and trees have life but do not have perceptivity. Fowl and beasts have perceptivity but do not have yi (sense of right and wrong, duty, justice). Men have qi, life, perceptivity, and yi." Chinese people at such an early time had no concept of radiant energy, but they were aware that one can be heated by a campfire from a distance away from the fire. They accounted for this phenomena by claiming "qi" radiated from fire. At 18:62/122, he too uses "qi" to refer to the vital forces of the body that decline with advanced age.
Among the animals, the gibbon and the crane were considered experts in inhaling the qi. The Confucian scholar Dong Zhongshu (ca. 150 BC) wrote in Luxuriant Dew of the Spring and Autumn Annals:[17] "The gibbon resembles a macaque, but he is larger, and his color is black. His forearms being long, he lives eight hundred years, because he is expert in controlling his breathing." ("猿似猴。大而黑。长前臂。所以寿八百。好引气也。")
Later, the syncretic text assembled under the direction of Liu An, the Huai Nan Zi, or "Masters of Huainan", has a passage that presages most of what is given greater detail by the Neo-Confucians:
Heaven (seen here as the ultimate source of all being) falls (duo 墮, i.e., descends into proto-immanence) as the formless. Fleeting, fluttering, penetrating, amorphous it is, and so it is called the Supreme Luminary. The dao begins in the Void Brightening. The Void Brightening produces the universe (yu-zhou ). The universe produces qi. Qi has bounds. The clear, yang [qi] was ethereal and so formed heaven. The heavy, turbid [qi] was congealed and impeded and so formed earth. The conjunction of the clear, yang [qi] was fluid and easy. The conjunction of the heavy, turbid [qi] was strained and difficult. So heaven was formed first and earth was made fast later. The pervading essence (xi-jing) of heaven and earth becomes yin and yang. The concentrated (zhuan) essences of yin and yang become the four seasons. The dispersed (san) essences of the four seasons become the myriad creatures. The hot qi of yang in accumulating produces fire. The essence (jing) of the fire-qi becomes the sun. The cold qi of yin in accumulating produces water. The essence of the water-qi becomes the moon. The essences produced by coitus (yin) of the sun and moon become the stars and celestial markpoints (chen, planets).
—Huai-nan-zi, 3:1a/19

Traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) asserts that the body has natural patterns of qi that circulate in channels called meridians.[18] In TCM, symptoms of various illnesses are believed to be the product of disrupted, blocked, or unbalanced qi movement through the body's meridians, as well as deficiencies or imbalances of qi in the Zang Fu organs.[19] Traditional Chinese medicine often seeks to relieve these imbalances by adjusting the circulation of qi using a variety of techniques including herbology, food therapy, physical training regimens (qigong, tai chi chuan, and other martial arts training),[20] moxibustion, tui na, and acupuncture.[21]

Scientific investigation

There have been a number of studies of qi, especially in the sense used by traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. These studies have often been problematic, and are hard to compare to each other, as they lack a common nomenclature.[22] Some studies claim to have been able to measure qi, or the effects of manipulating qi, such as through acupuncture[citation needed], but the proposed existence of qi has been rejected by the scientific community.
A United States National Institutes of Health consensus statement on acupuncture in 1997 noted that concepts such as qi "are difficult to reconcile with contemporary biomedical information."[23] In 2007 the MD Anderson Cancer Center at the University of Texas published an article [24] covering the concepts by which qi is believed to work and research into possible benefits for cancer patients. A review[25] of clinical trials investigating the use of internal qigong for pain management found no convincing evidence that it was effective.

Feng shui

The traditional Chinese art of geomancy, the placement and arrangement of space called feng shui, is based on calculating the balance of qi, interactions between the five elements, yin and yang and other factors. The retention or dissipation of qi is believed to affect the health, wealth, energy level, luck and many other aspects of the occupants of the space. Attributes of each item in a space affect the flow of qi by slowing it down, redirecting it or accelerating it, which purportedly directly impacts the energy level of the occupants. Feng shui is said to be a form of qi divination.[26]

Martial arts

Qi is a didactic concept in many Chinese, Korean and Japanese martial arts. Martial qigong is a feature of both internal and external training systems in China[27] and other East Asian cultures.[28] The most notable of the qi-focused "internal" force (jin) martial arts are Baguazhang, Xing Yi Quan, T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Snake Kung Fu, Dragon Kung Fu, Lion Kung Fu, Aikido, Aikijujutsu, Kyudo, Hapkido, jian and katana swordplay, Lohan Chuan, Shaolin Kung Fu, Liu He Ba Fa, Buddhist Fist, and some forms of Karate and Silat.
Demonstrations of qi or ki power are popular in some martial arts and may include the immovable body, the unraisable body, the unbendable arm and other feats of power. All of these feats can alternatively be explained using biomechanics and physics.[29][30]

See also


  1. ^ See p. 804f of Gao Shufan's "Xing, Yin, Yi Zonghe Da Zidian", Zhong Zheng Shuju, Taipei, 1984
  2. ^ Porkert, Manfred (1974). The Theoretical Foundations of Chinese Medicine: Systems of Correspondence. MIT Press. ISBN 0262160587. OCLC 123145357.
  3. ^ Definitions and brief historical notes on such concepts can be found in Wei Zhengtong's "Zhong Guo Zhexue Cidian", Da Lin Publishing Company, Taipei, 1977.
  4. ^ Mo Zi, chapter 25, 84/86ths of the way through
  5. ^ Mo Zi, 21:17/19
  6. ^ Mo Zi, 21:5/19 and 6:22/40
  7. ^ Mo Zi, 68:7/23 and 70:98/139
  8. ^ Analects, 10:3
  9. ^ a b c Mencius, 2A:2
  10. ^ Mencius, 6A:8
  11. ^ Zhuang Zi, 2:4/96
  12. ^ Zhuang Zi, 25:67/82
  13. ^ Zhuang Zi, 23:5/79
  14. ^ Zhuang Zi, 22:11/84
  15. ^ Zhuang Zi, 21:7/70
  16. ^ Harper, Donald; Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy (1999/2007). The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC.. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. pp. 880. ISBN 9780521470308.
  17. ^ Robert van Gulik, The gibbon in China. An essay in Chinese animal lore. E.J.Brill, Leiden, Holland. (1967). Page 38
  18. ^ Denis Lawson-Wood and Joyce Lawson-Wood, Acupuncture Handbook, Health Science Press, 1964, pp. 4, 133.
  19. ^ Lawson-Wood, p. 4 and throughout the book.
  20. ^ Wu, Kung-tsao (1980, 2006). Wu Family T'ai Chi Ch'uan (吳家太極拳). Chien-ch’uan T’ai-chi Ch’uan Association. ISBN 0-9780499-0-X.
  21. ^ Lawson-Wood, p. 78f.
  22. ^ White Peter, Golianu Brenda, Zaslawski Chris, Seung-HoonChoi (2006). "Standardization of Nomenclature in Acupuncture Research (SoNAR)". Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 4 (2): 267–270. doi:10.1093/ecam/nel095.
  23. ^ "Acupuncture: National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement". National Institutes of Health. 3- 5November 1997. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
  24. ^ Energy Medicines Will East Meet West
  25. ^ [1] Lee MS, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Internal qigong for pain conditions: a systematic review. Journal of Pain.2009;10(11):1121-1127
  26. ^ Stephen L. Field. 1998. [Qimancy: The Art and Science of Fengshui. http://www.fengshuigate.com/qimancy.html].
  27. ^ Wile, Douglas (1995). Lost T'ai-chi Classics from the Late Ch'ing Dynasty (Chinese Philosophy and Culture). State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791426548. OCLC 34546989.
  28. ^ Bishop, Mark (1989). Okinawan Karate: Teachers, Styles and Secret Techniques. A&C Black, London. ISBN 0713656662. OCLC 19262983.
  29. ^ Daniel A. James, "Unraisable body: The physics of martial arts", Sports Health, Autumn 2004, Sports Medicine Australia, Canberra
  30. ^ Moore, John. "What is Chi?". Maine Martial Arts. Kongo Tatsu Kai. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
Further reading

External links

气的最新诠释:1996年模似西方四元素是“信息-能量-物质-功能等”混合统一体的突变式的解释[1] [2][3][4] [5]












  1. ^ 邓宇等,藏象分形五系统的新英译,中国中西医结合杂志;1999年
  2. ^ 邓宇等,数理阴阳与实质,数理医药学杂志 1999年。
  3. ^ 邓宇等,阴阳的科学本质及数理化建构,《中国中医基础医学杂志》1998,2:59-61.
  4. ^ 邓宇等,中医分形集,《数理医药学杂志》,1999
  5. ^ 邓宇,朱栓立,徐彭等,经络英文新释译与实质,中国中西医结合杂志,2000,20(8):615
  6. ^ 《說文解字》:「气,雲氣也,象形。」
  7. ^ 《集韻》:「一曰息也,或作氣、炁。」
  8. ^ 《說文解字》:「饋客芻米也,从米气聲。《春秋傳》曰:『齊人來氣諸矦。』」
  9. ^ 邓宇、施仲源、单宝禄 气功外气的本质:“信息-能量-物质”统一的广义物质波,亚洲医药, 1996
  10. ^ 邓宇、单宝禄、施仲源 分形分维的经络解剖结构和形态,亚洲医药,1996
  11. ^ 邓宇、李志超 分形论概述及在中医经络中的应用与前景,经络论坛 1997
  12. ^ 邓宇、朱栓立、徐彭 中医与经络基础现代化研究的几个突破口 中医药报1997
  13. ^ 邓宇、朱栓立、徐彭 中医基本概念的突破 1997
  14. ^ 邓宇、邓海、施仲源 经络实质的现代新探索新认识:分形的经络及壁,气,数理阴阳,细胞联接,基因,胚胎发生,经络造影,系统工程规划新思维 1997
  15. ^ 邓宇,朱栓立,徐彭等,中医气的现代实质与气的定量:气集、气元,数理医药学杂志 ,2003, 16(4)


  • 邓宇等,藏象分形五系统的新英译,中国中西医结合杂志,1999年
  • 邓宇等,数理阴阳与实质,数理医药学杂志 1999年。
  • 邓宇等,阴阳的科学本质及数理化建构,《中国中医基础医学杂志》1998年,2:59-61。
  • 邓宇等,中医分形集,《数理医药学杂志》,1999年
  • 邓宇、朱栓立、徐彭等,经络英文新释译与实质,中国中西医结合杂志,2000年,20(8):615 。
  • 危北海,“气”在祖国医学中的应用[J],中医杂志,1961年,(3): 31-33
  • 罗石标,也谈气[J],中医杂志,1962年,(3): 26-27
  • 危北海,答“也谈气”[J],中医杂志,1962年,(3):27-29
  • 王唯工,氣的樂章:氣與經絡的科學解釋,中醫與人體的和諧之舞,大塊文化出版社,2009年