Rabu, 22 Juni 2011

QI 1 - 气 - 氣

QI 1 - 气 - 氣


Qi



Karakter qi dalam kaligrafi penulisan bahasa Korea

Qi (Hanzi: 氣, Kanji: 気) atau lebih sering dieja sebagai chi atau ch'i (dalam Romanisasi gaya Wade-Giles) atau ki (dalam ejaan Romaji bahasa Jepang) adalah sebuah konsep dasar budaya Tionghoa. Qi dipercayai adalah bagian dari semua makhluk hidup sebagai semacam "kekuatan hidup" atau "kekuatan spiritual". Kata ini seringkali diterjemahkan sebagai "aliran energi" atau secara harafiah sebagai "udara" atau "napas".

Etimologi

Dalam aksara Hanzi atau Kanji, qi ditulis sebagai 氣 atau 気. Menurut tradisi, karakter ini ditafsirkan sebagai "asap kukus (气) yang naik dari nasi (米) yang masak."













Qi



Qi (Ch'i)
Qi 3 forms.jpg
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Japanese name
Hiragana
Kyūjitai
Shinjitai
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Thai name
Thai ชี่
RTGS Chi
Vietnamese name
Quốc ngữ khí

In traditional Chinese culture, qi (also chi or ch'i) is an active principle forming part of any living thing. Qi is frequently translated as "energy flow", and is often compared to Western notions of energeia or élan vital (vitalism), as well as the yogic notion of prana and pranayama. The literal translation of "qi" is air, breath, or gas.

Contents

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Term and character

The etymological explanation for the form of the qi logogram in the traditional form is “steam () rising from rice () as it cooks”. The earliest way of writing qi consisted of three wavy lines, used to represent one's breath seen on a cold day. A later version, 气, identical to the present-day simplified character, is a stylized version of those same three lines. For some reason, early writers of Chinese found it desirable to substitute for 气 a cognate character that originally meant to feed other people in a social context such as providing food for guests.[citation needed] Appropriately, that character combined the three-line qi character with the character for rice. So 气 plus 米 formed 氣, and that is the traditional character still used today (the oracle bone character, the seal script character and the modern "school standard" or Kǎi shū characters in the box at the right show three stages of the evolution of this character).[1]


Traditional Chinese character qì, also used in Korean hanja. In Japanese kanji, this character was used until 1946, when it was changed to .

In the Japanese language, the Chinese character corresponding to "qi" () is pronounced 'ki'. The Japanese language contains over 11,442 known usages of "ki" as a compound. As a compound, it tends to represent syllables associated with the mind, the heart, feeling, the atmosphere, and flavor.[citation needed]

Definition

References to things analogous to the qi taken to be the life-process or flow of energy that sustains living beings are found in many belief systems, especially in Asia. In Chinese legend, it is Huang Di (the Yellow Emperor) who is identified as the one who first collected and formalized much of what subsequently became known as traditional Chinese medicine.
Philosophical conceptions of qi from the earliest records of Chinese philosophy (5th century BC) correspond to Western notions of humours. The earliest description of qi in the current sense of vital energy is due to Mencius (4th century BC).

Within the framework of Chinese thought, no notion may attain such a degree of abstraction from empirical data as to correspond perfectly to one of our modern universal concepts. Nevertheless, the term qi comes as close as possible to constituting a generic designation equivalent to our word "energy". When Chinese thinkers are unwilling or unable to fix the quality of an energetic phenomenon, the character qi (氣) inevitably flows from their brushes.[2]

The ancient Chinese described it as "life-force". They believed qi permeated everything and linked their surroundings together. They likened it to the flow of energy around and through the body, forming a cohesive and functioning unit. By understanding its rhythm and flow they believed they could guide exercises and treatments to provide stability and longevity.
Although the concept of qi has been important within many Chinese philosophies, over the centuries the descriptions of qi have varied and have sometimes been in conflict. Until China came into contact with Western scientific and philosophical ideas, they would not have categorized all things in terms of matter and energy. Qi and li (理, li, pattern) were 'fundamental' categories similar to matter and energy.


Hand written calligraphic Qi.
Fairly early on, some Chinese thinkers began to believe that there were different fractions of qi and that the coarsest and heaviest fractions of qi formed solids, lighter fractions formed liquids, and the most ethereal fractions were the "lifebreath" that animates living beings.[3]
Yuán qì is a notion of innate or pre-natal qi to distinguish it from acquired qi that a person may develop over the course of their lifetime.

Pronunciation

Other spellings include simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; Mandarin Pinyin: ; Wade–Giles: ch'i; Jyutping: hei. Qi is pronounced /ˈtʃiː/ in English; [tɕʰî] in Standard Chinese; Korean: gi; Japanese: ki; Vietnamese: khí, pronounced [xǐ]) The approximate English pronunciation of qi, similar to "chee" in cheese, should also be distinguished from the pronunciation of the Greek letter chi, which has a hard c sound, like "c" in car, and a long i, similar to other Greek letters phi, psi, xi.

Early philosophical texts



The earliest texts that speak of qi give some indications of how the concept developed. The philosopher Mo Di used the word qi to refer to noxious vapors that would in due time arise from a corpse were it not buried at a sufficient depth.[4] He reported that early civilized humans learned how to live in houses to protect their qi from the moisture that had troubled them when they lived in caves.[5] He also associated maintaining one's qi with providing oneself adequate nutrition.[6] In regard to another kind of qi, he recorded how some people performed a kind of prognostication by observing the qi (clouds) in the sky.[7]
In the Analects of Confucius, compiled from the notes of his students sometime after his death in 479 B.C., qi could mean breath,[8] and combining it with the Chinese word for blood (making 血氣, xue-qi, blood and breath), the concept could be used to account for motivational characteristics.

The [morally] noble man guards himself against three things. When he is young, his xue-qi has not yet stabilized, so he guards himself against sexual passion. When he reaches his prime, his xue-qi is not easily subdued, so he guards himself against combativeness. When he reaches old age, his xue-qi is already depleted, so he guards himself against acquisitiveness.
—Confucius, Analects, 16:7

Mencius described a kind of qi that might be characterized as an individual's vital energies. This qi was necessary to activity, and it could be controlled by a well-integrated willpower.[9] When properly nurtured, this qi was said to be capable of extending beyond the human body to reach throughout the universe.[9] It could also be augmented by means of careful exercise of one's moral capacities.[9] On the other hand, the qi of an individual could be degraded by averse external forces that succeed in operating on that individual.[10]
Not only human beings and animals were believed to have qi. Zhuangzi indicated that wind is the qi of the Earth.[11] Moreover, cosmic yin and yang "are the greatest of qi."[12] He described qi as "issuing forth" and creating profound effects.[13] He said "Human beings are born [because of] the accumulation of qi. When it accumulates there is life. When it dissipates there is death... There is one qi that connects and pervades everything in the world."[14]
Another passage traces life to intercourse between Heaven and Earth: "The highest Yin is the most restrained. The highest Yang is the most exuberant. The restrained comes forth from Heaven. The exuberant issues forth from Earth. The two intertwine and penetrate forming a harmony, and [as a result] things are born."[15]
"The Guanzi essay 'Neiye' 內業 (Inward training) is the oldest received writing on the subject of the cultivation of vapor [qi] and meditation techniques. The essay was probably composed at the Jixia Academy in Qi in the late fourth century B.C."[16]
Xun Zi, another Confucian scholar of the Jixia Academy, followed in later years. At 9:69/127, Xun Zi says, "Fire and water have qi but do not have life. Grasses and trees have life but do not have perceptivity. Fowl and beasts have perceptivity but do not have yi (sense of right and wrong, duty, justice). Men have qi, life, perceptivity, and yi." Chinese people at such an early time had no concept of radiant energy, but they were aware that one can be heated by a campfire from a distance away from the fire. They accounted for this phenomena by claiming "qi" radiated from fire. At 18:62/122, he too uses "qi" to refer to the vital forces of the body that decline with advanced age.
Among the animals, the gibbon and the crane were considered experts in inhaling the qi. The Confucian scholar Dong Zhongshu (ca. 150 BC) wrote in Luxuriant Dew of the Spring and Autumn Annals:[17] "The gibbon resembles a macaque, but he is larger, and his color is black. His forearms being long, he lives eight hundred years, because he is expert in controlling his breathing." ("猿似猴。大而黑。长前臂。所以寿八百。好引气也。")
Later, the syncretic text assembled under the direction of Liu An, the Huai Nan Zi, or "Masters of Huainan", has a passage that presages most of what is given greater detail by the Neo-Confucians:
Heaven (seen here as the ultimate source of all being) falls (duo 墮, i.e., descends into proto-immanence) as the formless. Fleeting, fluttering, penetrating, amorphous it is, and so it is called the Supreme Luminary. The dao begins in the Void Brightening. The Void Brightening produces the universe (yu-zhou ). The universe produces qi. Qi has bounds. The clear, yang [qi] was ethereal and so formed heaven. The heavy, turbid [qi] was congealed and impeded and so formed earth. The conjunction of the clear, yang [qi] was fluid and easy. The conjunction of the heavy, turbid [qi] was strained and difficult. So heaven was formed first and earth was made fast later. The pervading essence (xi-jing) of heaven and earth becomes yin and yang. The concentrated (zhuan) essences of yin and yang become the four seasons. The dispersed (san) essences of the four seasons become the myriad creatures. The hot qi of yang in accumulating produces fire. The essence (jing) of the fire-qi becomes the sun. The cold qi of yin in accumulating produces water. The essence of the water-qi becomes the moon. The essences produced by coitus (yin) of the sun and moon become the stars and celestial markpoints (chen, planets).
—Huai-nan-zi, 3:1a/19

Traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) asserts that the body has natural patterns of qi that circulate in channels called meridians.[18] In TCM, symptoms of various illnesses are believed to be the product of disrupted, blocked, or unbalanced qi movement through the body's meridians, as well as deficiencies or imbalances of qi in the Zang Fu organs.[19] Traditional Chinese medicine often seeks to relieve these imbalances by adjusting the circulation of qi using a variety of techniques including herbology, food therapy, physical training regimens (qigong, tai chi chuan, and other martial arts training),[20] moxibustion, tui na, and acupuncture.[21]

Scientific investigation

There have been a number of studies of qi, especially in the sense used by traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. These studies have often been problematic, and are hard to compare to each other, as they lack a common nomenclature.[22] Some studies claim to have been able to measure qi, or the effects of manipulating qi, such as through acupuncture[citation needed], but the proposed existence of qi has been rejected by the scientific community.
A United States National Institutes of Health consensus statement on acupuncture in 1997 noted that concepts such as qi "are difficult to reconcile with contemporary biomedical information."[23] In 2007 the MD Anderson Cancer Center at the University of Texas published an article [24] covering the concepts by which qi is believed to work and research into possible benefits for cancer patients. A review[25] of clinical trials investigating the use of internal qigong for pain management found no convincing evidence that it was effective.

Feng shui

The traditional Chinese art of geomancy, the placement and arrangement of space called feng shui, is based on calculating the balance of qi, interactions between the five elements, yin and yang and other factors. The retention or dissipation of qi is believed to affect the health, wealth, energy level, luck and many other aspects of the occupants of the space. Attributes of each item in a space affect the flow of qi by slowing it down, redirecting it or accelerating it, which purportedly directly impacts the energy level of the occupants. Feng shui is said to be a form of qi divination.[26]

Martial arts

Qi is a didactic concept in many Chinese, Korean and Japanese martial arts. Martial qigong is a feature of both internal and external training systems in China[27] and other East Asian cultures.[28] The most notable of the qi-focused "internal" force (jin) martial arts are Baguazhang, Xing Yi Quan, T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Snake Kung Fu, Dragon Kung Fu, Lion Kung Fu, Aikido, Aikijujutsu, Kyudo, Hapkido, jian and katana swordplay, Lohan Chuan, Shaolin Kung Fu, Liu He Ba Fa, Buddhist Fist, and some forms of Karate and Silat.
Demonstrations of qi or ki power are popular in some martial arts and may include the immovable body, the unraisable body, the unbendable arm and other feats of power. All of these feats can alternatively be explained using biomechanics and physics.[29][30]

See also


References

Notes
  1. ^ See p. 804f of Gao Shufan's "Xing, Yin, Yi Zonghe Da Zidian", Zhong Zheng Shuju, Taipei, 1984
  2. ^ Porkert, Manfred (1974). The Theoretical Foundations of Chinese Medicine: Systems of Correspondence. MIT Press. ISBN 0262160587. OCLC 123145357.
  3. ^ Definitions and brief historical notes on such concepts can be found in Wei Zhengtong's "Zhong Guo Zhexue Cidian", Da Lin Publishing Company, Taipei, 1977.
  4. ^ Mo Zi, chapter 25, 84/86ths of the way through
  5. ^ Mo Zi, 21:17/19
  6. ^ Mo Zi, 21:5/19 and 6:22/40
  7. ^ Mo Zi, 68:7/23 and 70:98/139
  8. ^ Analects, 10:3
  9. ^ a b c Mencius, 2A:2
  10. ^ Mencius, 6A:8
  11. ^ Zhuang Zi, 2:4/96
  12. ^ Zhuang Zi, 25:67/82
  13. ^ Zhuang Zi, 23:5/79
  14. ^ Zhuang Zi, 22:11/84
  15. ^ Zhuang Zi, 21:7/70
  16. ^ Harper, Donald; Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy (1999/2007). The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC.. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. pp. 880. ISBN 9780521470308.
  17. ^ Robert van Gulik, The gibbon in China. An essay in Chinese animal lore. E.J.Brill, Leiden, Holland. (1967). Page 38
  18. ^ Denis Lawson-Wood and Joyce Lawson-Wood, Acupuncture Handbook, Health Science Press, 1964, pp. 4, 133.
  19. ^ Lawson-Wood, p. 4 and throughout the book.
  20. ^ Wu, Kung-tsao (1980, 2006). Wu Family T'ai Chi Ch'uan (吳家太極拳). Chien-ch’uan T’ai-chi Ch’uan Association. ISBN 0-9780499-0-X.
  21. ^ Lawson-Wood, p. 78f.
  22. ^ White Peter, Golianu Brenda, Zaslawski Chris, Seung-HoonChoi (2006). "Standardization of Nomenclature in Acupuncture Research (SoNAR)". Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 4 (2): 267–270. doi:10.1093/ecam/nel095.
  23. ^ "Acupuncture: National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement". National Institutes of Health. 3- 5November 1997. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
  24. ^ Energy Medicines Will East Meet West
  25. ^ [1] Lee MS, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Internal qigong for pain conditions: a systematic review. Journal of Pain.2009;10(11):1121-1127
  26. ^ Stephen L. Field. 1998. [Qimancy: The Art and Science of Fengshui. http://www.fengshuigate.com/qimancy.html].
  27. ^ Wile, Douglas (1995). Lost T'ai-chi Classics from the Late Ch'ing Dynasty (Chinese Philosophy and Culture). State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791426548. OCLC 34546989.
  28. ^ Bishop, Mark (1989). Okinawan Karate: Teachers, Styles and Secret Techniques. A&C Black, London. ISBN 0713656662. OCLC 19262983.
  29. ^ Daniel A. James, "Unraisable body: The physics of martial arts", Sports Health, Autumn 2004, Sports Medicine Australia, Canberra
  30. ^ Moore, John. "What is Chi?". Maine Martial Arts. Kongo Tatsu Kai. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
Further reading

External links











气是中國哲學道教中醫學中常見的概念。中國春秋戰國時代的思想家,將氣的概念,抽象化,成為天地一切事物組成的基本元素,有著像氣體般的流動特性。認為人類與一切生物具備的生命能量或動力,也被稱為是氣,宇宙間的一切事物,均是氣的運行與變化的結果。中醫學認為氣是人體的第一道防護線,聚於體裡保護著臟腑,而流散發於膚表以防外邪侵入而導致疾病發生。
气的最新诠释:1996年模似西方四元素是“信息-能量-物质-功能等”混合统一体的突变式的解释[1] [2][3][4] [5]

目录


字源

氣源自於古字,最早是氣的意思,是個象形字[6]。它有呼吸、氣息的意思[7],也有米飯的意思[8]。它很快被引申,具備天氣氣候節氣氣味乃至於風氣、流行等等意思,也發展出許多異體字,如、餼,在唐朝之後逐漸定型為氣。
至宋代之後,道教思想家為了區別先天的氣與後天的氣,採用古字來代表先天的氣,代表無極,氣則被當成是後天的氣,為太極。這兩個字的意義又被分開。但是除了道教文獻之外,通常都以氣來概括。

中医學

在中醫學中,氣與血合稱為『氣血』,認為是構成人體及維持生命活動的最基本能量,同時也具有生理機能的含義。氣與體溫相近,故對於過寒過熱的內外在環境變化時,氣就可能受干擾而影響人體健康狀態。中醫認為氣按其不同的功能、特性及運動再細分類為元氣宗氣營氣衛氣。气集合、气元素[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]

中藥學

氣味,味道:在中药学中,指含有挥发性物质的药物的特殊气味。

现代解释

1959年,秦伯未提出‘气的物质说’。1962年,罗石标提出‘气的功能说’。同年,(1962年),危北海提出‘气的两义说’。令外,還有李德新的「气是物质与功能的统一说」、黄坤仪等的「人体气场说」、李梢等的「气与熵流说」,及吴邦惠的「气的序参量说」。
1996年邓宇等認為中医的气是现代生物学已经发现和尚未发现的生命活性三要素:「信息-能量-物质」流的统一体。
血液循環共振理論認為在血液循環的俱共振的現象,血管有其特定的共振頻率,器官及穴道同樣有其特定的共振頻率。器官或穴道與動脈因為耦合振動進而產生分頻現象。人體器官系統都有各自的頻率,把相同諧波共振的器官歸為同一類,則自然得到內臟與經絡關係。五臟及其經絡歸屬低頻,故屬陰;六腑及其經絡,歸屬高頻,故屬陽。「氣」由共振之理論看來,就是心臟所打出來壓力能量的表現,當某器官系統氣不足,則壓力亦為不足,器官中微小動脈括約打開時,血液就無力量再射入微血管中進而營養組織,所以此器官系統就會因氣不足而缺血,自然就缺乏營養,缺氧及抵抗力等,進而造成代謝之廢物累積,累久而之,人體百病皆可由此而來。

相關條目


注释

  1. ^ 邓宇等,藏象分形五系统的新英译,中国中西医结合杂志;1999年
  2. ^ 邓宇等,数理阴阳与实质,数理医药学杂志 1999年。
  3. ^ 邓宇等,阴阳的科学本质及数理化建构,《中国中医基础医学杂志》1998,2:59-61.
  4. ^ 邓宇等,中医分形集,《数理医药学杂志》,1999
  5. ^ 邓宇,朱栓立,徐彭等,经络英文新释译与实质,中国中西医结合杂志,2000,20(8):615
  6. ^ 《說文解字》:「气,雲氣也,象形。」
  7. ^ 《集韻》:「一曰息也,或作氣、炁。」
  8. ^ 《說文解字》:「饋客芻米也,从米气聲。《春秋傳》曰:『齊人來氣諸矦。』」
  9. ^ 邓宇、施仲源、单宝禄 气功外气的本质:“信息-能量-物质”统一的广义物质波,亚洲医药, 1996
  10. ^ 邓宇、单宝禄、施仲源 分形分维的经络解剖结构和形态,亚洲医药,1996
  11. ^ 邓宇、李志超 分形论概述及在中医经络中的应用与前景,经络论坛 1997
  12. ^ 邓宇、朱栓立、徐彭 中医与经络基础现代化研究的几个突破口 中医药报1997
  13. ^ 邓宇、朱栓立、徐彭 中医基本概念的突破 1997
  14. ^ 邓宇、邓海、施仲源 经络实质的现代新探索新认识:分形的经络及壁,气,数理阴阳,细胞联接,基因,胚胎发生,经络造影,系统工程规划新思维 1997
  15. ^ 邓宇,朱栓立,徐彭等,中医气的现代实质与气的定量:气集、气元,数理医药学杂志 ,2003, 16(4)

参考文献

  • 邓宇等,藏象分形五系统的新英译,中国中西医结合杂志,1999年
  • 邓宇等,数理阴阳与实质,数理医药学杂志 1999年。
  • 邓宇等,阴阳的科学本质及数理化建构,《中国中医基础医学杂志》1998年,2:59-61。
  • 邓宇等,中医分形集,《数理医药学杂志》,1999年
  • 邓宇、朱栓立、徐彭等,经络英文新释译与实质,中国中西医结合杂志,2000年,20(8):615 。
  • 危北海,“气”在祖国医学中的应用[J],中医杂志,1961年,(3): 31-33
  • 罗石标,也谈气[J],中医杂志,1962年,(3): 26-27
  • 危北海,答“也谈气”[J],中医杂志,1962年,(3):27-29
  • 王唯工,氣的樂章:氣與經絡的科學解釋,中醫與人體的和諧之舞,大塊文化出版社,2009年







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